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Gjuhësia

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Linguistika, apo Gjuhësia është shkenca që e studjon gjuhën njerëzore, shkencëtari që merret me të quhetlinguist ose gjuhëtar. Ajo ndahet në degë të shumta disa nga më të rëndësishmet janë:

  • Fonetika : studion zërat që i prodhon aparati i të folurit ;
  • Fonologjia : studion fonemat e një gjuhe ;
  • Morfologjia studion strukturën e brendshme të fjalëve ;
  • Leksikologjia : studion fjalorin e një gjuhë ;
  • Sintaksa : studion kombinimin e fjalëve në fjali ;
  • Semantika : studion kuptimin dhe domethënien e fjalëve dhe fjalive ;
  • Stilistika : studion zhvillimin e diskursit në raport me kontekstin ;

metrika<studion metrin e vargjeve brenda nje vepre

languages

Linguistics has many sub-fields concerned with particular aspects of linguistic structure. The theory that elucidates on these, as propounded by Noam Chomsky, is known as generative theory or universal grammar. These sub-fields range from those focused primarily on form to those focused primarily on meaning. They also run the gamut of level of analysis of language, from individual sounds, to words, to phrases, up to cultural discourse.

Sub-fields that focus on a structure-focused study of language:

  • Phonetics, the study of the physical properties of speech sound production and perception
  • Phonology, the study of sounds as abstract elements in the speaker’s mind that distinguish meaning (phonemes)
  • Morphology, the study of morphemes, or the internal structures of words and how they can be modified
  • Syntax, the study of how words combine to form grammatical sentences
  • Semantics, the study of the meaning of words (lexical semantics) and fixed word combinations (phraseology), and how these combine to form the meanings of sentences
  • Pragmatics, the study of how utterances are used in communicative acts, and the role played by context and non-linguistic knowledge in the transmission of meaning
  • Discourse analysis, the analysis of language use in texts (spoken, written, or signed)
  • Stylistics, the study of linguistic factors (rhetoric, diction, stress) that place a discourse in context
  • Semiotics, the study of signs and sign processes (semiosis), indication, designation, likeness, analogy, metaphor, symbolism, signification, and communication.